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Eastern Oregon

Eastern Oregon is in the libertarian conservative preparedness and liberty-minded red state part of the liberal blue state of Oregon. Eastern Oregon is part of the American Redoubt.

Oregon is a state on the west coast of the United States. Its capital is Salem and largest city is Portland. Oregon became the 33rd state on Feb. 14, 1859.


Although Oregon has been a blue state in presidential elections since 1988, Eastern Oregon is one of the major conservative red state parts of Oregon along with Southwest Oregon. It had been a red state from 1964 to 1984. For example, in the 2012 Presidential election, Mitt Romney received at least 60% of the vote in every county in Eastern Oregon.<ref>US Election Atlas, Oregon 2012 Presidential Election. US Election Atlas.</ref>

Since 2007, Oregon, due to the strongly liberal large urban population voting bloc of Portland, has offered domestic partnerships, which are similar to same sex marriage.

Liberal Portland versus Conservative Eastern and Southwestern Oregon

The high population density northwest areas of the state (Portland, Eugene, Salem) are very liberal leaning especially in the area of environmentalism. The southwest area of the state (such as the Rogue Valley, Josephine County and Jackson County) and the portion east of the Cascades are very conservative. Hence, Eastern Oregon (Palouse, Harney Basin, High Desert, Treasure Valley and East Central Oregon) is considered to be part of the conservative American Redoubt area of the United States.


Oregon was originally settled by many Native Americans before the Lewis and Clark expedition brought greater attention to the area from the United States and Britain. The British had control of the majority of the territory until the Oregon Trail started in the 1840s and American settlers began moving in. Eventually, the land was ceded to the United States in the resolution of a boundary dispute.


The population density is concentrated in the fertile Willamette Valley from Portland to Eugene. The Cascade mountains divide the state into wet and dry halves, much like neighboring Washington State, but Eastern Oregon lacks the irrigation works of the Columbia basin and much more resembles Nevada. Oregon supports a significant logging industry, largely concentrated in the western half of the state. Environmental restrictions have severely hurt the industry, producing conservative opinions inland, but the liberal cities of Portland and Eugene generally support environmentalism.

[[Essay:Survivalist Retreat Potential Rank]]ing Analysis by [[James Wesley Rawles]]

  • Population density: 35 per square mile (Rank 9 of JWR’s top 19 states) (The highest density is in the northwest part of the state. It is much lower elsewhere, particular eastern 2/3rds of the state.)
  • Area: 97,000 square miles (rank 10 of 50).
  • Average car insurance cost: $704/yr. (rank 35 of 50).
  • Average home insurance cost: $343/yr. (rank 47 of 50).
  • Per capita income: $27,660 (rank 25 of 50).



  • Creeping “Californication”.
  • Second lowest church attendance rate in the country.
  • Restrictive zoning and expensive building permits in many western counties.
  • “All transactions involving modern (post-1898) guns at gun shows must now be processed through a FFL-licensed dealer, with the requisite paperwork. Sadly, since gun shows are the best place to find a decent selection of used guns, and since many metropolitan newspapers now refuse to run gun ads in their classified sections, I consider this change in the Oregon law a significant hit against firearms freedom.”
  • Parts of the state are recommended, (with reservations).

“Note: I probably should have given Oregon a lower survival ranking, due to its mediocre gun and tax laws. However, its favorable climate and long growing season pushed it up the list slightly.”

JWR’s Combined Retreat Potential Ranking: 3 of 19.<ref>374 word quotation: Fair Use Source: Rawles, James Wesley. Rawles on Retreats and Relocation. 1st. Clearwater, Idaho: The Clearwater Press, 2007. p. 64. Print.</ref><ref>Recommended Retreat Areas Accessed February 20, 2015</ref>

People from Oregon

Oregon is the birthplace of author Lance Goldman, and football quarterback Harry Shields.

Elected Officials



See Also

Biblography - Further Reading

  • Corning, Howard McKinley, ed. Dictionary of Oregon History. (2d ed. 1989). 281 pp.
  • DeMarco, Gordon. A Short History of Portland. (1990). 158 pp.
  • Dodds, Gordon B. The American Northwest: A History of Oregon and Washington. (1986). 359 pp.
  • Dodds, Gordon B. Oregon: A Bicentennial History. (1977). 240 pp., popular history by leading scholar
  • Pomeroy, Earl. The Pacific Slope: A History of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Utah, and Nevada. (1965) 412pp
  • Robbins, William G. Landscapes of Promise: The Oregon Story, 1800-1940. (1997). 392 pp. standard history of the state
  • Schwantes, Carlos. The Pacific Northwest: An Interpretive History. (1996)

[[Strategic relocation|Strategic Relocation]] to Oregon

Specialized Studies

  • Abbott, Carl. Greater Portland: Urban Life and Landscape in the Pacific Northwest. (2001). 242 pp. by a leading historian
  • Allan, Stuart; Buckley, Aileen R.; and Meacham, James E. Atlas of Oregon. (1976). 301 pp.
  • Bataille, Connie Hopkins. The Oregon Book: Information A to Z. (1998). 677 pp.
  • Boag, Peter G. Environment and Experience: Settlement Culture in Nineteenth-Century Oregon. (1992). 227 pp. advanced new social history
  • Bourke, Paul and DeBats, Donald. Washington County: Politics and Community in Antebellum America. (1995). 407 pp., advanced history
  • Carlson, Laurie Winn. On Sidesaddles to Heaven: The Women of the Rocky Mountain Mission. (1998). 253 pp.
  • Clark, Malcolm, Jr. Eden Seekers: The Settlement of Oregon, 1818-1862. (1981). 327 pp.
  • Dodds, Gordon B. and Wollner, Craig E. The Silicon Forest: High Tech in the Portland Area, 1945-1986. (1990). 226 pp.
  • Douthit, Nathan. A Guide to Oregon South Coast History: Traveling the Jedediah Smith Trail. (1999). 224 pp.
  • Drukman, Mason. Wayne Morse: A Political Biography. (1997). 545 pp. liberal senator 1945-69
  • Drury, Clifford M. Marcus and Narcissa Whitman and the Opening of Old Oregon. (2 vol. 1973). 911 pp. pioneer Methodist missionaries massacred by Indians in 1847
  • Farmer, Judith A. et al. Historical Atlas of Early Oregon. (1973). 53pp.
  • Gilmore, Janet C. The World of the Oregon Fishboat: A Study in Maritime Folklife. (1986). 271 pp.
  • Haarsager, Sandra. Organized Womanhood: Cultural Politics in the Pacific Northwest, 1840-1920. (1997). 427 pp.
  • Heider, Douglas and Dietz, David. Legislative Perspectives: A 150-Year History of the Oregon Legislature from 1843 to 1993. (1995). 227 pp.
  • Johnson, David Alan. Founding the Far West: California, Oregon, and Nevada, 1840-1890. (1992). 474 pp.
  • Kesselman, Amy. Fleeting Opportunities: Women Shipyard Workers in Portland and Vancouver during World War II and Reconversion. (1990). 192 pp.
  • Lang, William L. and Carriker, Robert C., eds. Great River of the West: Essays on the Columbia (1999). 181 pp.
  • Mason, Thomas L. Governing Oregon: An Inside Look at Politics in One American State. (1994). 251 pp.
  • May, Dean L. Three Frontiers: Family, Land, and Society in the American West, 1850-1900. (1994). 313 pp. advanced social history of Sublimity, Oregon, and two other towns
  • Mullins, William H. The Depression and the Urban West Coast, 1929-1933: Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Portland. (1991). 176 pp.
  • Murrell, Gary. Iron Pants: Oregon's Anti-New Deal Governor, Charles Henry Martin. (2000). 228 pp.
  • Neal, Steve. McNary of Oregon: A Political Biography. (1985). 249 pp. conservative GOP Senator 1917-44, and 1940 VP nominee
  • Robinson, Thomas; Gifford, Benjamin and Terrill, Steve, photographer. Oregon Then and Now. (2000). 192 pp. photo history
  • Schwantes, Carlos Arnaldo. Hard Traveling: A Portrait of Work Life in the New Northwest. (1994). 234 pp. labor history by leading historian
  • Shirley, Gayle. More Than Petticoats: Remarkable Oregon Women. (1998). 139 pp., popular

Primary Sources

  • Applegate, Shannon and O'Donnell, Terence, eds. Talking on Paper: An Anthology of Oregon Letters and Diaries. (1994). 324 pp.
  • Beckham, Stephen Dow, ed. Many Faces: An Anthology of Oregon Autobiography. (1993). 330 pp.
  • Dodds, Gordon B., ed. Varieties of Hope: An Anthology of Oregon Prose. (1993). 330 pp.
  • Wendt, Ingrid and St. John, Primus, eds. From Here We Speak: An Anthology of Oregon Poetry. (1994). 332 pp.

Oregon Trail

  • Butruille, Susan G. ed. Women's Voices from the Oregon Trail. (1993). 251 pp., primary sources
  • Unruh, John D., Jr. The Plains Across: The Overland Emigrants and the Trans-Mississippi West, 1840-1860. (1979). 565 pp. standard scholarly history

[[Strategic relocation|Strategic Relocation]] to Oregon

Archives, Oregon State

  • Oregon Blue Book - The Oregon Blue Book is the official state directory and fact book about all levels of government in Oregon, and much more. Published since 1911, it is produced and updated by the Oregon State Archives, a division of the Secretary of State's Office.
  • Travel Oregon - This website provides information on natural places of beauty, lodging, outdoor activities and attractions. Databases allows users to search for hotels, B&B's, resorts, RV parks and outdoor adventures. Also available is a searchable calendar of local and regional events taking place throughout Oregon.
  • Oregon Historic Photograph Collections - This database includes over 10,000 viewable photographs and related descriptions from the holdings of the Salem Public Library, the Oregon State Archives, and the Marion County Historical Society. The images date from the mid-1800s to the 1990s and depict a wide range of subjects such as Oregon towns, homes, businesses, occupations, scenic vistas, disasters, festivities, and recreational pursuits. The database is searchable by keyword and is maintained by the Salem Public Library.
  • Oregon State Databases, searchable public domain databases produced by Oregon state agencies. Compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association.

Agriculture, Department of

  • List of Departmental Databases - The Oregon Department of Agriculture provides access to a number of databases from this page including but not limited to: Oregon Products Database, Available Livestock Brands, Oregon Veterinarians and Clinics, Wholesale Seed Dealer licenses, Agricultural Resources Directory, Pesticide Related Licenses, and Nursery and Christmas Tree Licenses.

Elections, Secretary of State, Department of

Employment Department, Oregon

  • Current Employment by Industry - Provides employment data for industry both for the last 12 months and for the last two months with figures for the previous year for various industries in Oregon, its counties, and metropolitan areas.
  • Employer Database - Provides information on thousands of Oregon employers. Searchable by area, industry or employer name.
  • Job Listings - Lists current Employment Department job listings. Searchable by occupation, location, job listing number or keyword.

Legislature, Oregon State

  • Bills and Laws Search - Searchable database of bills and laws by either full measure text or specific measure number.
  • Find your Legislator - Enter an Oregon address to find a list of the state and U.S. legislators for that area.

Parks and Recreation, Department of

  • Search for a park - Search for an Oregon state park by clicking on a region of a map of Oregon or by clicking on the appropriate box. Add details such as type of campsite or yurt, beach access, horse or hiking trails, setting (forest, desert, waterfalls, etc), events or ADA accessibility.

Revenue, Department of

  • ORMAP - Statewide property tax parcel base map searchable by county and township-range grid, which provides file lists of scanned taxlot maps from county assessors. Also provides links to some county assessor websites, offering other searching capabilities.

Transportation, Department of

  • Tripcheck - Provides information regarding the current status of road conditions throughout Oregon, as well as links to commercial airports, rideshare opportunities, public transit systems and bicycle information. Includes current weather conditions and maps showing rest areas, sno-parks, scenic byways and road cams.

University of Oregon Libraries

  • Data for Local Communities - This database contains records for State of Oregon or other websites containing statistical, spatial and descriptive data about the cities and counties of Oregon and Washington. Many of the sites are access points for agency databases.
  • Historic Oregon Newspapers - Part of the “Chronicling America” program), which covers various Oregon papers from 1848-1922. New content added on a regular basis. Valuable to anyone researching the Western frontier, Indian wars, etc. Searchable by keyword.
  • Oregon Newspapers Index - 977,000+ searchable records including The Oregon Daily Emerald. Eugene (Or.), the University of Oregon campus newspaper, 1900-1979. 102,000+ records.; The Portland Oregonian. Portland (Or.), 1852 - 1987. 839,000+ records and The Register-Guard. Eugene (Or.), 1963 - 2004. 30,000+ records. Index may be searched by title, subject, author, or keyword. Records may be limited by date.

Water Resources Department

  • Historical Streamflow and Lake Level Data - Provides historical graphic statistics on streamflows in Oregon, searchable by basin, gaging station, station status, and date range. Includes searchable watershed and hydrological unit maps in Google Earth or Maps format, with information on gaging stations, including number and description, township, range and section, longitude and latitude, and date range of available data from which to search.
  • Real Time Streamflow Information - Provides links to sites, mostly U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), giving preliminary realtime streamflow data. USACE and USBR provide graphic data in cubic feet over a course of days, and USGS data also includes station number and name, location (including map), drainage area, period of record, gage, remarks, and extremes for period. Offers a choice of discharge or gage height parameters, as well as a choice of output format and number of days.
  • Water Rights Mapping Tool - Allows the user to view water rights and other pertinent information such as ground water limited areas, watermaster districts, water availability basins, etc. Browse by basin, search for a township, or search for an application using this program.
  • Well Log Query - Provides searchable database for well log information. Searchable by township, range, and section, county, constructor, owner name, company, completed and received dates, start card, well log ID, well tag, and taxlot numbers. Results also provide street of well, first water, completed depth, static water level, and yield.




Oregon States of the United States American Redoubt Survivalism Blue States West Coast of the United States Pacific Northwest Western United States Environmentalism

Snippet from Wikipedia: Oregon

Oregon ( (listen) ORR-(ih)-gən) is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho. The 42° north parallel delineates the southern boundary with California and Nevada.

Oregon has been home to many Indigenous nations for thousands of years. The first European traders, explorers, and settlers began exploring what is now Oregon's Pacific coast in the early-mid 1500s. As early as 1565, the Spanish began sending vessels northeast from the Philippines, riding the Kuroshio Current in a sweeping circular route across the northern part of the Pacific. In 1592, Juan de Fuca undertook detailed mapping and studies of ocean currents in the Pacific Northwest, including the Oregon coast as well as the strait now bearing his name. Spanish ships – 250 in as many years – would typically not land before reaching Cape Mendocino in California, but some landed or wrecked in what is now Oregon. Nehalem tales recount strangers and the discovery of items like chunks of beeswax and a lidded silver vase, likely connected to the 1707 wreck of the San Francisco Xavier.

In 1843, an autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country, and the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state of the U.S. on February 14, 1859. Today, with 4 million people over 98,000 square miles (250,000 km2), Oregon is the ninth largest and 27th most populous U.S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second-most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U.S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which also includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.

Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U.S., marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet (3,429 m), Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. The state is also home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres (8.9 km2) of the Malheur National Forest.

Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is largely powered by various forms of agriculture, fishing, and hydroelectric power. Oregon is also the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, and the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel. Sportswear company Nike, Inc., headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion.

</ref><br />De facto: English


[ Map of Oregon] (PDF). Reston, Virginia: Interior Geological Survey, 2004 />

, with Haystack Rock in the distance.]] Oregon (

)<ref name=traveloregon/> is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is located on the Pacific coast, with Washington to the north, California to the south, Nevada on the southeast and Idaho to the east. The Columbia and Snake rivers delineate much of Oregon's northern and eastern boundaries, respectively. The area was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before the arrival of traders, explorers, and settlers who formed an autonomous government in Oregon Country in 1843. The Oregon Territory was created in 1848, and Oregon became the 33rd state on February&nbsp;14, 1859.

Oregon is the 9th most expansive and the 27th most populous of the 50 United States. Salem is the state's capital and third-most-populous city; Portland is the most populous. Portland is the 28th largest U.S. city, with a population of 603,106 (2012 estimate) and a metro population of 2,262,605 (2011 estimate), the 23rd largest U.S. metro area. The valley of the Willamette River in western Oregon is the state's most densely populated area and is home to eight of the 10 most populous cities.

Oregon contains a diverse landscape including the windswept Pacific coastline, the volcanoes of the rugged and glaciated Cascade Mountain Range, many waterfalls (including Multnomah Falls), dense evergreen forests, mixed forests and deciduous forests at lower elevations, and high desert across much of the eastern portion of the state, extending into the Great Basin. The tall Douglas firs and redwoods along the rainy Western Oregon coast contrast with the lower density and fire-prone pine tree and juniper forests covering portions of the eastern half of the state. Alder trees are common in the west and fix nitrogen for the conifers; aspen groves are common in eastern Oregon. Stretching east from Central Oregon, the state also includes semi-arid shrublands, prairies, deserts, steppes, and meadows. Mount Hood is the highest point in the state at

. Crater Lake National Park is the only national park in Oregon.


at Hells Canyon.]]

region of Oregon.]]

]] The earliest known use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain. The term referred to the then–mythical River of the West (the Columbia River). By 1778 the spelling had shifted to Oregon.<ref>Oregon Almanac</ref> In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote:<ref>Where does the name "Oregon" come from? from the online edition of the Oregon Blue Book.</ref> <blockquote> “The rout

<!– spelled this way in quote –>…is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, and from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon…” </blockquote>

One theory is the name comes from the French word ouragan (“windstorm” or “hurricane”), which was applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds of the lower Columbia River, or perhaps from firsthand French experience with the chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains.<ref>


Joaquin Miller explained in ''Sunset'' magazine in 1904 how Oregon's name was derived:<ref>Miller, Joaquin (1904). "Sea of Silence", ''Sunset'', 396(13):5.</ref>

<blockquote>“The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Aure il agua—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given probably by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, and it literally, in a large way, means cascades: 'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand entirely the full meaning of the name Aure il agua, Oregon.”</blockquote>

However, the Portuguese equivalent of “hear the waters” -as a command- is “ou&ccedil;a as &aacute;guas”, so this explanation is not correct.

Another account, endorsed as the “most plausible explanation” in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th&nbsp;century, on which the Ouisiconsink (Wisconsin) River was spelled “Ouaricon-sint,” broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named “Ouaricon.”

According to the Oregon Tourism Commission (also known as Travel Oregon), present-day Oregonians

<ref name=mw>

</ref> pronounce the state's name as “OR-UH-GUN, never OR-EE-GONE.”<ref name=traveloregon>


After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed “ORYGUN” stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state.<ref>Banks, Don (April 21, 2002). "Harrington confident about Detroit QB challenge." Sports Illustrated.</ref><ref>

</ref> The stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore.<ref>



Humans have inhabited the area that is now Oregon for at least 15,000 years. In recorded history, mentions of the land date to as early as the 16th&nbsp;century. During the 18th and 19th&nbsp;centuries, European powers&nbsp;– and later the United States&nbsp;– quarreled over possession of the region until 1846 when the U.S. and Great Britain finalized division of the region. Oregon became a state in 1859 and is now home to over 3.8&nbsp;million residents.

Earliest inhabitants

Human habitation of the Pacific Northwest began at least 15,000 years ago, with the oldest evidence of habitation in Oregon found at Fort Rock Cave and the Paisley Caves in Lake County. Archaeologist Luther Cressman dated material from Fort Rock to 13,200 years ago.<ref>

</ref> By 8000 B.C. there were settlements throughout the state, with populations concentrated along the lower Columbia River, in the western valleys, and around coastal estuaries.

By the 16th&nbsp;century, Oregon was home to many Native American groups, including the Coquille (Ko-Kwell), Bannock, Chasta, Chinook, Kalapuya, Klamath, Molalla, Nez Perce, Takelma, and Umpqua.<ref name=“BBGreatBasin”>

</ref><ref name=“BBNWCoast”>

</ref><ref name=“CTGrandRonde”>

</ref><ref name=“BBColumbiaPlateau”>


European exploration

The first Europeans to visit Oregon were Spanish explorers led by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo who sighted southern Oregon off the Pacific Coast in 1543.<ref>Atlas of Exploration, foreword by John Hemming, Oxford University Press, pp. 140–141</ref> In 1592, Juan de Fuca undertook detailed mapping and ocean current studies. Stops along these trips included Oregon as well as the strait now bearing his name and the future emplacement of Vancouver (Washington). Exploration was retaken routinely in 1774, starting by the expedition of frigate Santiago by Juan José Pérez Hernández (see Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest), and the coast of Oregon became a valuable trading route to Asia. In 1778, British captain James Cook also explored the coast.<ref name=“chronology”>


French Canadian and metis trappers and missionaries arrived in the eastern part of the state in the late 18th and early 19th&nbsp;centuries, many having travelled as members of Lewis and Clark and the 1811 Astor expeditions. Some stayed permanently, including Étienne Lussier, believed to be the first European farmer in the state of Oregon. The evidence of this French Canadian presence can be found in the numerous names of French origin in that part of the state, including Malheur Lake and the Malheur River, the Grande Ronde and Deschutes rivers, and the city of La Grande.

During U.S. westward expansion

The Lewis and Clark Expedition traveled through the region also in search of the Northwest Passage. They built their winter fort in 1805-06 at Fort Clatsop, near the mouth of the Columbia River. British explorer David Thompson also conducted overland exploration.

In 1811, David Thompson, of the North West Company, became the first European to navigate the entire Columbia River. Stopping on the way, at the junction of the Snake River, he posted a claim to the region for Great Britain and the North West Company. Upon returning to Montreal, he publicized the abundance of fur-bearing animals in the area.

Also in 1811, New Yorker John Jacob Astor financed the establishment of Fort Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River as a western outpost to his Pacific Fur Company;<ref name=“Atlas”>

</ref> this was the first permanent European settlement in Oregon.

.]] In the War of 1812, the British gained control of all Pacific Fur Company posts. The Treaty of 1818 established joint British and American occupancy of the region west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. By the 1820s and 1830s, the Hudson's Bay Company dominated the Pacific Northwest from its Columbia District headquarters at Fort Vancouver (built in 1825 by the District's Chief Factor John McLoughlin across the Columbia from present-day Portland).

In 1841, the expert trapper and entrepreneur Ewing Young died leaving considerable wealth and no apparent heir, and no system to probate his estate. A meeting followed Young's funeral at which a probate government was proposed. Doctor Ira Babcock of Jason Lee's Methodist Mission was elected Supreme Judge. Babcock chaired two meetings in 1842 at Champoeg, (half way between Lee's mission and Oregon City), to discuss wolves and other animals of contemporary concern. These meetings were precursors to an all-citizen meeting in 1843, which instituted a provisional government headed by an executive committee made up of David Hill, Alanson Beers, and Joseph Gale. This government was the first acting public government of the Oregon Country before annexation by the government of the United States.

Also in 1841, Sir George Simpson, Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, reversed the Hudson's Bay Company's long-standing policy of discouraging settlement because it interfered with the lucrative fur trade. He directed that some 200 Red River Colony settlers be relocated to HBC farms near Fort Vancouver, (the James Sinclair expedition), in an attempt to hold Columbia District.

Starting in 1842–1843, the Oregon Trail brought many new American settlers to Oregon Country. For some time, it seemed that Britain and the United States would go to war for a third time in 75 years (see Oregon boundary dispute), but the border was defined peacefully in 1846 by the Oregon Treaty. The border between the United States and British North America was set at the 49th parallel. The Oregon Territory was officially organized in 1848.

Settlement increased with the Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 and the forced relocation of the native population to Indian reservations in Oregon.

After statehood

Oregon was admitted to the Union on February 14, 1859. Founded as a refuge from disputes over slavery, Oregon had a “whites only” clause in its original state Constitution.<ref name=“A Peculiar Paradise”>


At the outbreak of the American Civil War, regular U.S. troops were withdrawn and sent east. Volunteer cavalry recruited in California were sent north to Oregon to keep peace and protect the populace. The First Oregon Cavalry served until June 1865.

In the 1880s, the growth of railroads helped market the state's lumber, wheat, and the rapid growth of its cities.

20th and 21st centuries

In 1902, Oregon introduced direct legislation by the state’s citizens through initiatives and referenda, known as the Oregon System. Oregon state ballots often include politically conservative proposals side-by-side with politically liberal ones, illustrating the diversity of political thought in the state.

Industrial expansion began in earnest following the 1933–1937 construction of the Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Hydroelectric power, food, and lumber provided by Oregon helped fuel the development of the West, although the periodic fluctuations in the U.S. building industry have hurt the state's economy on multiple occasions.

In 1994, Oregon became the first U.S. state to legalize physician-assisted suicide through the Oregon Death with Dignity Act.


Oregon's geography may be split roughly into eight areas:

The mountainous regions of western Oregon, home to three of the most prominent mountain peaks of the United States including Mount Hood, were formed by the volcanic activity of the Juan de Fuca Plate, a tectonic plate that poses a continued threat of volcanic activity and earthquakes in the region. The most recent major activity was the 1700 Cascadia earthquake. Washington's Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980, an event which was visible from and affected some of northern Oregon.

The Columbia River, which forms much of the northern border of Oregon, also played a major role in the region's geological evolution, as well as its economic and cultural development. The Columbia is one of North America's largest rivers, and one of two rivers to cut through the Cascades (the Klamath River in Southern Oregon is the other). About 15,000 years ago, the Columbia repeatedly flooded much of Oregon during the Missoula Floods; the modern fertility of the Willamette Valley is largely a result of those floods. Plentiful salmon made parts of the river, such as Celilo Falls, hubs of economic activity for thousands of years. In the 20th&nbsp;century, numerous hydroelectric dams were constructed along the Columbia, with major impacts on salmon, transportation and commerce, electric power, and flood control.

Today, Oregon's landscape varies from rain forest in the Coast Range to barren desert in the southeast, which still meets the technical definition of a frontier.

Oregon is

north to south at longest distance, and

east to west at longest distance. In land and water area, Oregon is the ninth largest state, covering

.<ref>Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (geographies ranked by total population). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 11, 2013.</ref> The highest point in Oregon is the summit of Mount Hood, at

, and its lowest point is sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon coast.<ref name=usgs>

</ref> Its mean elevation is

. Crater Lake National Park is the state's only national park and the site of Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the U.S. at


</ref> Oregon claims the D River is the shortest river in the world,<ref name=“driver”>

</ref> though the American state of Montana makes the same claim of its Roe River.<ref name=“roeriver”>


Oregon is also home to Mill Ends Park (in Portland),<ref name=“pp&r”>

</ref> the smallest park in the world at

. Oregon's geographical center is farther west than that of any of the other 48 contiguous states (although the westernmost point of the lower 48 states is in Washington). Its antipodes, diametrically opposite its geographical center on the Earth's surface, is at

in the Indian Ocean northwest of Port-aux-Français in the French Southern and Antarctic Lands. Oregon lies in two time zones. Most of Malheur County is in the Mountain Time Zone while the rest of the state lies in the Pacific Time Zone.

Oregon is home to what is considered the largest single organism in the world, an Armillaria solidipes fungus beneath the Malheur National Forest of eastern Oregon.<ref>Beale, Bob (April 10, 2003). "Humungous fungus: world's largest organism?" Environment & Nature News, ABC Online. Accessed January 2, 2007.</ref>

<center> <gallery caption=“Images of Oregon” widths=“200px” perrow=“5”> File:Trilliumlake.jpg|Mount Hood, with Trillium Lake in the foreground File:Crater lake oregon.jpg|An aerial view of Crater Lake in Oregon File:Portland panorama3.jpg|Portland File:Eugene skyline crop.jpg|Downtown Eugene as seen from Skinner Butte in North Eugene File:Oregon population map 2000.png|Map of Oregon's population density File:Public-Lands-Western-US.png|Nearly half of Oregon's land is held by the U.S. Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management.<ref>Western States Data Public Land Acreage (November 13, 2007).</ref> File:Wpdms_shdrlfi020l_willamette_valley.jpg|Willamette Valley basin map </gallery> </center>

Major cities

Most Populous Cities
Rank City Population<br/><small>(2010 US Census)</small><ref name=“2010 US Census”>



Metropolitan Area
1 Portland 583,776 Portland-Vancouver
2 Eugene 156,185 Eugene-Springfield
3 Salem 154,637 Salem
4 Gresham 105,594 Portland-Vancouver
5 Hillsboro 91,611 Portland-Vancouver
6 Beaverton 89,803 Portland-Vancouver
7 Bend 76,639 Bend
8 Medford 74,907 Medford
9 Springfield 59,403 Eugene-Springfield
10 Corvallis 54,462 Corvallis
11 Albany 50,158 Albany
12 Tigard 48,035 Portland-Vancouver

Oregon's population is largely concentrated in the Willamette Valley, which stretches from Eugene in the south (home of the University of Oregon) through Corvallis (home of Oregon State University) and Salem (the capital) to Portland (Oregon's largest city).<ref name=“2010 US Census” />

Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia River, was the first permanent English-speaking settlement west of the Rockies in what is now the United States. Oregon City, at the end of the Oregon Trail, was the Oregon Territory's first incorporated city, and was its first capital from 1848 until 1852, when the capital was moved to Salem. Bend, near the geographic center of the state, is one of the ten fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States.<ref>50 Fastest-Growing Metro Areas Concentrated in West and South. U.S. Census Bureau 2005. Retrieved October 16, 2007.</ref> In the southern part of the state, Medford is a rapidly growing metro area, which is home to The Rogue Valley International-Medford Airport, the third-busiest airport in the state. To the south, near the California-Oregon border, is the community of Ashland, home of the Tony Award-winning Oregon Shakespeare Festival.


Oregon has many different climates, ranging from temperate rainforest climates on the Oregon Coast, Mediterranean in the inland valleys, alpine climates in the higher mountain regions, steppe in the northeast and desert in the southeast. Like Western Europe, Oregon is considered warm for its latitude, and the state has far milder winters for the given elevation than the comparable latitude parts of North America, such as the upper Midwest, Ontario, Quebec and New England.

Western Oregon's climate is heavily influenced by the Pacific Ocean. The western third of Oregon is very wet in the winter, moderately to very wet during the spring and fall, and dry during the summer. The relative humidity of Western Oregon is high except during summer days, which are semi-dry to semi-humid; Eastern Oregon typically sees low humidity year round.

The eastern two thirds of Oregon have cold, snowy winters and very dry summers; much of it is semiarid to arid like the rest of the Great Basin, though the Blue Mountains are wet enough to support extensive forests.

Most of the state does get significant snowfall, but 70 percent of Oregon's population lives in the Willamette Valley, which has exceptionally mild winters for its latitude and typically only sees a few light falls each year. This gives Oregon a reputation of being relatively “snowless”.

Oregon's highest recorded temperature is

at Pendleton on August 10, 1898, and the lowest recorded temperature is

at Seneca on February 10, 1933.


and Oregon flown side-by-side in downtown Portland.]] A writer in the Oregon Country book A Pacific Republic, written in 1839, predicted the territory was to become an independent republic. Four years later, in 1843, settlers of the Willamette Valley voted in majority for a republic government.<ref>Allen, Cain (2006). "The Oregon History Project- A Pacific Republic". Oregon Historical Society. Retrieved October 8, 2010.</ref> The Oregon Country functioned in this way until August 13, 1848, when Oregon was annexed by the United States and a territorial government was established. Oregon maintained a territorial government until February 14, 1859, when it was granted statehood.<ref>



Oregon state government has a separation of powers similar to the federal government. It has three branches, called departments by the state's constitution:

Governors in Oregon serve four-year terms and are limited to two consecutive terms, but an unlimited number of total terms. Oregon has no lieutenant governor; in the event that the office of governor is vacated, Article V, Section 8a of the Oregon Constitution specifies that the Secretary of State is first in line for succession.<ref name=articlev>

</ref> The other statewide officers are Treasurer, Attorney General, Superintendent, and Labor Commissioner. The biennial Oregon Legislative Assembly consists of a thirty-member Senate and a sixty-member House. The state supreme court has seven elected justices, currently including the only two openly gay state supreme court justices in the nation. They choose one of their own to serve a six-year term as Chief Justice. The only court that may reverse or modify a decision of the Oregon Supreme Court is the Supreme Court of the United States.

The debate over whether to move to annual sessions is a long-standing battle in Oregon politics, but the voters have resisted the move from citizen legislators to professional lawmakers. Because Oregon's state budget is written in two-year increments and, having no sales tax, its revenue is based largely on income taxes, it is often significantly over- or under-budget. Recent legislatures have had to be called into special session repeatedly to address revenue shortfalls resulting from economic downturns, bringing to a head the need for more frequent legislative sessions. Oregon Initiative 71, passed in 2010, mandates the Legislature to begin meeting every year, for 160 days in odd-numbered years, and 35 days in even-numbered years.


File:Oregon voter reg 1950-2006.png|thumb|250px|Party registration in Oregon, 1950–2006. {{legend|purple|total}} {{legend|red|Democratic Party}} {{legend|yellow|Republican Party}} {{legend

The state maintains formal relationships with the nine federally recognized tribes in Oregon:

Oregonians have voted for the Democratic Presidential candidate in every election since 1988. In 2004 and 2006, Democrats won control of the state Senate and then the House. Since the late 1990s, Oregon has been represented by four Democrats and one Republican in the U.S. House of Representatives. Since 2009, the state has had two Democratic Senators, Ron Wyden and Jeff Merkley. Oregon voters have elected Democratic governors in every election since 1986, most recently electing John Kitzhaber over Republican Chris Dudley in 2010.

The base of Democratic support is largely concentrated in the urban centers of the Willamette Valley. The eastern two-thirds of the state beyond the Cascade Mountains typically votes Republican; in 2000 and 2004, George W. Bush carried every county east of the Cascades. However, the region's sparse population means that the more populous counties in the Willamette Valley usually outweigh the eastern counties in statewide elections.

Oregon's politics are largely similar to those of neighboring Washington&nbsp;– for instance, in the contrast between urban and rural issues.

In the 2002 general election, Oregon voters approved a ballot measure to increase the state minimum wage automatically each year according to inflationary changes, which are measured by the consumer price index (CPI).<ref>ORS 653.025.</ref> In the 2004 general election, Oregon voters passed ballot measures banning same-sex marriage,<ref>

</ref> and restricting land use regulation.<ref>

</ref> In the 2006 general election, voters restricted the use of eminent domain and extended the state's discount prescription drug coverage.<ref>


The distribution, sales and consumption of alcoholic beverages are regulated in the state by the Oregon Liquor Control Commission. Thus, Oregon is an Alcoholic beverage control state. While wine and beer are available in most grocery stores, few stores sell hard liquor.

In March 2011, Oregon ranked amongst the top seven “Best” states in the American State Litter Scorecard, for overall effectiveness and quality of its public space cleanliness—-primarily roadway and adjacent litter—from state and related debris removal efforts.<ref>S. Spacek, 2011 American State Litter Scorecard: New Rankings for An Increasingly Environmentally-Concerned Populace.</ref>


Like all US states, Oregon is represented by two U.S. Senators. Since the 1980 census, Oregon has had five Congressional districts.

After Oregon was admitted to the Union, it began with a single member in the House of Representatives (La Fayette Grover, who served in the 35th United States Congress for less than a month). Congressional apportionment increased the size of the delegation following the censuses of 1890, 1910, 1940, and 1980. A detailed list of the past and present Congressional delegations from Oregon is available.

The United States District Court for the District of Oregon hears federal cases in the state. The court has courthouses in Portland, Eugene, Medford, and Pendleton. Also in Portland is the federal bankruptcy court, with a second branch in Eugene.<ref>

</ref> Oregon (among other western states and territories) is in the 9th Court of Appeals. One of the court's meeting places is at the Pioneer Courthouse in downtown Portland, a National Historic Landmark built in 1869.


Presidential elections results<ref>Leip, David. "2008 presidential general election results". Retrieved October 12, 2010.</ref>
Year Republican Democratic
2012 42.18% 754,095 54.27% 970,343
2008 40.40% 738,475 56.75% 1,037,291
2004 47.19% 866,831 51.35% 943,163
2000 46.46% 713,577 47.01% 720,342
1996 39.06% 538,152 47.15% 649,641
1992 32.53% 475,757 42.48% 621,314
1988 46.61% 560,126 51.28% 616,206
1984 55.91% 685,700 43.74% 536,479
1980 48.33% 571,044 38.67% 456,890
1976 47.78% 492,120 47.62% 490,407
1972 52.45% 486,686 42.33% 392,760
1968 49.83% 408,433 43.78% 358,866
1964 35.96% 282,779 63.72% 501,017
1960 52.56% 408,060 47.32% 367,402
1956 55.25% 406,393 44.75% 329,204
1952 60.54% 420,815 38.93% 270,579
The state has been thought of as politically split by the Cascade Range, with western Oregon being liberal and Eastern Oregon being conservative. In a 2008 analysis of the 2004 presidential election, a political analyst found that according to the application of a Likert scale, Oregon boasted both the most liberal Kerry voters and the most conservative Bush voters, making it the most politically polarized state in the country.<ref>


During Oregon's history it has adopted many electoral reforms proposed during the Progressive Era, through the efforts of William S. U'Ren and his Direct Legislation League. Under his leadership, the state overwhelmingly approved a ballot measure in 1902 that created the initiative and referendum for citizens to introduce or approve proposed laws or amendments to the state constitution directly, making Oregon the first state to adopt such a system. Today, roughly half of U.S. states do so.<ref>


In following years, the primary election to select party candidates was adopted in 1904, and in 1908 the Oregon Constitution was amended to include recall of public officials. More recent amendments include the nation's first doctor-assisted suicide law,<ref>

</ref> called the Death with Dignity law (which was challenged, unsuccessfully, in 2005 by the Bush administration in a case heard by the U.S. Supreme Court), legalization of medical cannabis, and among the nation's strongest anti-urban sprawl and pro-environment laws. More recently, 2004's Measure 37 reflects a backlash against such land-use laws. However, a further ballot measure in 2007, Measure 49, curtailed many of the provisions of 37.

Of the measures placed on the ballot since 1902, the people have passed 99 of the 288 initiatives and 25 of the 61 referendums on the ballot, though not all of them survived challenges in courts (see Pierce v. Society of Sisters, for an example). During the same period, the legislature has referred 363 measures to the people, of which 206 have passed.

Oregon pioneered the American use of postal voting, beginning with experimentation approved by the Oregon Legislative Assembly in 1981 and culminating with a 1998 ballot measure mandating that all counties conduct elections by mail. It remains the only state, with the exception of Washington, where voting by mail is the only method of voting.<ref>"Voting In Oregon&nbsp;– Vote By Mail." Multnomah County, Oregon.</ref>

In 1994, Oregon adopted the Oregon Health Plan, which made health care available to most of its citizens without private health insurance.

In the U.S. Electoral College, Oregon casts seven votes. Oregon has supported Democratic candidates in the last seven elections. Democratic incumbent Barack Obama won the state by a margin of twelve percentage points, with over 54% of the popular vote in 2012.


in Halsey storing grass seed, one of the state's largest crops.]] The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Oregon in 2010 was $168.6&nbsp;billion; Oregon is the 26th wealthiest state by GDP. The state's per capita personal income in 2010 was $44,447.<ref>


Despite its relatively low unemployment rate at 8.0% (as of July, 2013),<ref>U.S. Unemployment Ranker. Oregon Employment Department. Retrieved November 1, 2013.</ref> Oregon has the third largest amount of food stamp users in the nation (21% of the population).<ref>Real Time Economics The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 1, 2013.</ref>


Land in the Willamette Valley owes its fertility to the Missoula Floods, which deposited lake sediment from Glacial Lake Missoula in western Montana onto the valley floor.<ref name=chapter24>McNab, W. Henry; Avers, Peter E (July 1994). ''Ecological Subregions of the United States.'' Chapter 24. U.S. Forest Service and Dept. of Agriculture.</ref>

Oregon is also one of four major world hazelnut growing regions, and produces 95% of the domestic hazelnuts in the United States. While the history of the wine production in Oregon can be traced to before Prohibition, it became a significant industry beginning in the 1970s. In 2005, Oregon ranked third among U.S. states with 303 wineries.<ref>

</ref> Due to regional similarities in climate and soil, the grapes planted in Oregon are often the same varieties found in the French regions of Alsace and Burgundy.

In the Southern Oregon coast commercially cultivated cranberries account for about 7&nbsp;percent of US production, and the cranberry ranks 23rd among Oregon's top 50 agricultural commodities. From 2006 to 2008, Oregon growers harvested between 40 and 49 million pounds of berries every year.

Cranberry cultivation in Oregon uses about

in southern Coos and northern Curry counties, centered around the coastal city of Bandon.

In the northeastern region of the state, particularly around Pendleton, both irrigated and dry land wheat is grown. Oregon farmers and ranchers also produce cattle, sheep, dairy products, eggs and poultry.

Forestry and fisheries

Vast forests have historically made Oregon one of the nation's major timber production and logging states, but forest fires (such as the Tillamook Burn), over-harvesting, and lawsuits over the proper management of the extensive federal forest holdings have reduced the timber produced. According to the Oregon Forest Resources Institute, between 1989 and 2001 the amount of timber harvested from federal lands dropped some 96%, from 4,333&nbsp;million to 173&nbsp;million board feet (10,000,000 to 408,000&nbsp;m3), although harvest levels on private land have remained relatively constant.<ref>


Even the shift in recent years towards finished goods such as paper and building materials has not slowed the decline of the timber industry in the state. The effects of this decline have included Weyerhaeuser's acquisition of Portland-based Willamette Industries in January 2002, the relocation of Louisiana-Pacific's corporate headquarters from Portland to Nashville, and the decline of former lumber company towns such as Gilchrist. Despite these changes, Oregon still leads the United States in softwood lumber production; in 2001, 6,056&nbsp;million&nbsp;board feet (14,000,000 m3) was produced in Oregon, compared with 4,257&nbsp;million board feet (10,050,000 m3) in Washington, 2,731 million board feet (6,444,000 m3) in California, 2,413 million board feet (5,694,000 m3) in Georgia, and 2,327 million board feet (5,491,000 m3) in Mississippi.<ref>

</ref> The slowing of the timber and lumber industry has caused high unemployment rates in rural areas.<ref name=“referencedesk”>


Oregon has one of the largest salmon-fishing industries in the world, although ocean fisheries have reduced the river fisheries in recent years. See also the List of freshwater fishes of Oregon.


Tourism is also a strong industry in the state. Oregon's mountains, forests, waterfalls, lakes (including Crater Lake National Park), and beaches draw visitors year round. The Oregon Shakespeare Festival, held in Ashland, is a tourist draw for Southern Oregon.

File:Craft Breweries Per Capita (US).svg

Oregon is home to many breweries and Portland has the largest number of breweries of any city in the world.<ref>


Oregon occasionally hosts film shoots. <!–Do not add more films to this list without discussion on the talk page!–>Movies filmed in Oregon include: Animal House, Free Willy, The General, The Goonies, Kindergarten Cop, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, and Stand By Me. Oregon native Matt Groening, creator of The Simpsons, has incorporated many references from his hometown of Portland into the TV series.<ref>



High technology industries and services have been a major employer since the 1970s. Tektronix was the largest private employer in Oregon until the late 1980s. Intel's creation and expansion of several facilities in eastern Washington County continued the growth that Tektronix had started. Intel, the state's largest for-profit private employer,<ref name=oreg-2013jul17>

</ref> operates four large facilities, with Ronler Acres, Jones Farm and Hawthorn Farm all located in Hillsboro.<ref>


The spinoffs and startups that were produced by these two companies led to the establishment in that area of the so-called Silicon Forest. The recession and dot-com bust of 2001 hit the region hard; many high technology employers reduced the number of their employees or went out of business. Open Source Development Labs made news in 2004 when they hired Linus Torvalds, developer of the Linux kernel. In 2010, biotechnology giant Genentech opened a $400-million facility in Hillsboro to expand its production capabilities.<ref name=“genentech expansion”>

</ref> Oregon is home to several large datacenters that take advantage of cheap power and a climate in Central Oregon conducive to reducing cooling costs. Google has a large datacenter in The Dalles and Facebook has built a large datacenter in Prineville. In 2011, Amazon began operating a datacenter in northeastern Oregon near Boardman.<ref name=“amazon data center”>


Corporate headquarters

Largest Public Corporations Headquartered in Oregon<ref>


Corporation Headquarters Market cap (million)
1. Nike, Inc. near Beaverton $32,039
2. Precision Castparts Corp. Portland $16,158
3. FLIR Systems Wilsonville $4,250
4. StanCorp Financial Group Portland $2,495
5. Schnitzer Steel Industries Portland $1,974
6. Portland General Electric Portland $1,737
7. Columbia Sportswear near Beaverton $1,593
8. Northwest Natural Gas Portland $1,287
9. Mentor Graphics Wilsonville $976
10. TriQuint Semiconductor Hillsboro $938
Oregon is also the home of large corporations in other industries. The world headquarters of Nike, Inc. are located near Beaverton. Medford is home to Harry and David, which sells gift items under several brands. Medford is also home to the national headquarters of the Fortune 1000 company, Lithia Motors. Portland is home to one of the West's largest trade book publishing houses, Graphic Arts Center Publishing. Oregon is also home to Mentor Graphics Corporation, a world leader in electronic design automation (EDA) located in Wilsonville and employs roughly 4,500 people worldwide.

Adidas Corporations American Headquarters is located in Portland and employs roughly 900 fulltime workers at its Portland Campus. Adidas competes with Beaverton based Nike Inc as “the other Sports giant in town”. The main Adidas Campus has been ranked as one of the best places to work in Portland.<ref>


Nike Inc, located just outside of Portland in nearby Beaverton employs roughly 5,000 fulltime employees at it

campus. Nike Inc's Beaverton Campus is continuously ranked as a top employer in the Portland area - along with competitor Adidas.<ref>


Intel Corporation employs roughly 16,000 in Oregon with the majority of these employees located at the Companies Hillsboro Campus located about 30 minutes west of Portland. Intel has been a top employer in Oregon since 1974.<ref>


The U.S. Federal Government and Providence Health systems are respective contenders for top employers in Oregon with roughly 12,000 federal workers and 14,000 Providence Health workers.


As of August 2013, the state's unemployment rate is 8.1%.<ref>

</ref> Oregon's largest for-profit employer is Intel, located in the Silicon Forest area on Portland's west side. Intel was the largest employer in Oregon until 2008. As of January 2009, the largest employer in Oregon is Providence Health & Services, a non-profit.<ref>


Nike and Adidas also have their North American Headquarters in the Portland area.

Taxes and budgets

Oregon's biennial state budget, $42.4 billion as of 2007, comprises General Funds, Federal Funds, Lottery Funds, and Other Funds. Personal income taxes account for 88% of the General Fund's projected funds.<ref>

</ref> The Lottery Fund, which has grown steadily since the lottery was approved in 1984, exceeded expectations in the 2007 fiscal years, at $604 million.<ref>


Oregon is one of only five states that have no sales tax.<ref>

</ref> Oregon voters have been resolute in their opposition to a sales tax, voting proposals down each of the nine times they have been presented.<ref>

</ref> The last vote, for 1993's Measure 1, was defeated by a 75–25% margin.<ref>


The state also has a minimum corporate tax of only $10 a year, amounting to 5.6% of the General Fund in the 2005–7 biennium; data about which businesses pay the minimum is not available to the public.<ref>

</ref> As a result, the state relies on property and income taxes for its revenue. Oregon has the fifth highest personal income tax in the nation. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Oregon ranked 41st out of the 50 states in taxes per capita in 2005.<ref name=percapita>

</ref> The average amount paid of $1,791.45 is higher than only nine other states.<ref name=percapita/>

Some local governments levy sales taxes on services: the city of Ashland, for example, collects a 5% sales tax on prepared food.<ref>


Oregon is one of six states with a revenue limit.<ref>

</ref> The ”kicker law“ stipulates that when income tax collections exceed state economists' estimates by 2% or more, any excess must be returned to taxpayers.<ref>

</ref> Since the enactment of the law in 1979, refunds have been issued for seven of the eleven biennia.<ref>

</ref> In 2000, Ballot Measure 86 converted the “kicker” law from statute to the Oregon Constitution, and changed some of its provisions.

Federal payments to county governments, which were granted to replace timber revenue when logging in National Forests was restricted in the 1990s, have been under threat of suspension for several years. This issue dominates the future revenue of rural counties, which have come to rely on the payments in providing essential services.<ref>


55% of state revenues are spent on public education, 23% on human services (child protective services, Medicaid, and senior services), 17% on public safety, and 5% on other services.<ref>"2006 Oregon full-year resident tax form instructions." (PDF) Oregon.Gov.</ref>



</ref> }}


Population Research Center |format=PDF |accessdate=October 30, 2013}}</ref>]]

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Oregon was 3,930,065 on July 1, 2013, a 2.6% increase over the 2010 United States Census.<ref name=“PopEstUS”>


As of the census of 2010,<ref name= “psu census data”>

</ref> Oregon had a population of 3,831,074, which is an increase of 409,675, or 12%, since the year 2000. The population density was 39.9 persons per square mile. There were 1,675,562 housing units, a 15.3% increase over 2000. Among them, 90.7% were occupied.

In 2010, 78.5% of the population was white alone (meaning of no other race and non-Hispanic), 1.7% was black or African American alone, 1.1% was “American Indian or Alaska native alone, 3.6% was Asian alone, 0.3% was Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander alone, 0.1% was another race alone, and 2.9% was multiracial. Hispanics or Latinos made up 11.7% of the total population.

Oregon Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1990<ref>Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States</ref> 2000<ref>Population of Oregon: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts</ref> 2010<ref>2010 Census Data</ref>
White 92.8% 86.6% 83.6%
Asian 2.4% 3.0% 3.7%
Black 1.6% 1.6% 1.8%
Native 1.4% 1.3% 1.4%
Native Hawaiian and <br>other Pacific Islander - 0.2% 0.4%
Other race 1.8% 4.2% 5.3%
Two or more races - 3.1% 3.8%

The state's most populous ethnic group, non-Hispanic white, has declined from 95.8% in 1970 to 77.8% in 2012.<ref>



As of 2011, 38.7% of Oregon's children under one year of age belonged to minority groups, meaning they had at least one parent who was not a non-Hispanic white.<ref>”Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot”. The Plain Dealer. June 3, 2012.</ref> Of the state's total population, 22.6% was under the age 18, and 77.4% were 18 or older.

The center of population of Oregon is located in Linn County, in the city of Lyons.<ref>

</ref> More than 46% of the state's population lives in the Oregon portion of the Portland metropolitan area.<ref>


.]] As of 2004, Oregon's population included 309,700 foreign-born residents (accounting for 8.7% of the state population).

The largest ancestry groups in the state are:<ref>"2006–2008 American Community Survey 3-year estimates." U.S. Census Bureau.</ref>

The largest reported ancestry groups in Oregon are: German (22.5%), English (14.0%), Irish (13.2%), Scandinavian (8.4%) and American (5.0%). Approximately 62% of Oregon residents are wholly or partly of English, Welsh, Irish or Scottish ancestry. Most Oregon counties are inhabited principally by residents of Northwestern-European ancestry. Concentrations of Mexican-Americans are highest in Malheur and Jefferson counties.

The majority of the diversity in Oregon is in the Portland metropolitan area.

Future projections

Projections from the U.S. Census Bureau show Oregon's population increasing to 4,833,918 by 2030, an increase of 41.3% compared to the state's population of 3,421,399 in 2000.<ref>

</ref> The state's own projections forecast a total population of 5,425,408 in 2040.<ref>


Religious and secular communities

Major religious affiliations of the people of Oregon are:<ref>"U.S. Religious Landscape Survey." The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Retrieved February 5, 2010.</ref>

  • Christian&nbsp;— 67%
  • Unaffiliated&nbsp;— 27%
  • Buddhist&nbsp;— 2%
  • Jewish&nbsp;— 1%
  • Muslim&nbsp;— 0.5%
  • Other Religions&nbsp;— 2%

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church with 398,738; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 147,965; and the Assemblies of God with 45,492.<ref name=“”>


In a 2009 Gallup poll, 69% of Oregonians identified themselves as being Christian.<ref>Newport, Frank (August 7, 2009). "Religious identity: States differ widely." Gallup. Retrieved December 23, 2009.</ref> Most of the remainder of the population had no religious affiliation; the 2008 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) placed Oregon as tied with Nevada in fifth place of U.S. states having the highest percentage of residents identifying themselves as “non-religious”, at 24&nbsp;percent.<ref>


</ref> Secular organizations include the Center for Inquiry (CFI), the Humanists of Greater Portland (HGP), and the United States Atheists (USA).

During much of the 1990s, a group of conservative Christians formed the Oregon Citizens Alliance, and unsuccessfully tried to pass legislation to prevent “gay sensitivity training” in public schools and legal benefits for homosexual couples.<ref>Wentz, Patty (February 11, 1998). "He's back." Willamette Week. Retrieved March 14, 2008.</ref>

Oregon also contains the largest community of Russian Old Believers to be found in the United States.<ref>Binus, Joshua. "The Oregon History Project: Russian Old Believers." Oregon Historical Society. Retrieved on March 14, 2008.</ref> The Northwest Tibetan Cultural Association is headquartered in Portland, and the New Age film What the Bleep Do We Know! was filmed and had its premiere in Portland. There are an estimated 6,000 to 10,000 Muslims in Oregon, most of whom live in and around Portland.<ref>



Primary and secondary

As of 2010, the state had 561,698 students in public primary and secondary schools.<ref name=facts>"Oregon Blue Book: Oregon Almanac: Native Americans to shoes, oldest." Oregon Secretary of State. Retrieved on January 5, 2012.</ref> There were 197 public school districts at that time, served by 20 education service districts.<ref name=facts/> The five largest school districts as of 2007 were: Portland Public Schools (46,262 students); Salem-Keizer School District (40,106); Beaverton School District (37,821); Hillsboro School District (20,401); and Eugene School District (18,025).<ref>"Oregon public school enrollment increases during 2007–08." Oregon Department of Education. Retrieved March 28, 2008.</ref>

Colleges and universities


The Oregon University System supports seven public universities and one affiliate in the state. The University of Oregon in Eugene is Oregon's flagship institution. UO is the state's most selective and highest nationally ranked university by U.S. News & World Report.<ref> America's Best Colleges 2008: National Universities: Best Schools<!-- Bot generated title --></ref> Oregon State University is located in Corvallis and is the state's only land-grant university. It is the state's highest ranking university according to Academic Ranking of World Universities.<ref>


The state's urban Portland State University has Oregon's largest enrollment. The state has three regional universities: Western Oregon University in Monmouth, Southern Oregon University in Ashland, and Eastern Oregon University in La Grande. The Oregon Institute of Technology has its campus in Klamath Falls. The quasi-public Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) includes medical, dental, and nursing schools, and graduate programs in biomedical sciences in Portland and a science and engineering school in Hillsboro. It rated 2nd among US best medical schools for primary care based on research by The Med School 100.<ref>Good University Ranking Guide</ref>

Oregon has historically struggled to fund higher education. Recently, Oregon has cut its higher education budget over 2002–2006 and now Oregon ranks 46th in the country in state spending per student. However, 2007 legislation forced tuition increases to cap at 3% per year, and funded the OUS far beyond the requested governor's budget.<ref>"Higher education get higher priority." The Oregon Daily Emerald, June 29, 2007. Retrieved July 8, 2007.</ref>

The state also supports 17 community colleges.


Oregon is home to a wide variety of private colleges. The University of Portland and Marylhurst University are Catholic institutions in the Portland area. Reed College; Concordia University; Lewis & Clark College; Multnomah Bible College; Portland Bible College; Warner Pacific College; Cascade College; the National College of Natural Medicine; and Western Seminary, a theological graduate school; are also in Portland. Pacific University is in the Portland suburb of Forest Grove.

There are also private colleges farther south in the Willamette Valley. McMinnville has Linfield College, while nearby Newberg is home to George Fox University. Salem is home to two private schools: Willamette University (the state's oldest, established during the provisional period) and Corban University. Also located near Salem is Mount Angel Seminary, one of America's largest Roman Catholic seminaries. The state's second medical school, the College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Northwest, is located in Lebanon. Eugene is home to three private colleges: Northwest Christian University, New Hope Christian College, and Gutenberg College.


during a Portland Trail Blazers game]] Oregon is home to two professional sports teams which are both based in Portland: Portland Trail Blazers of the NBA and the Portland Timbers of MLS.<ref name = timbers>"MLS awards team to Portland for 2011." Portland Timbers, March 20, 2009.</ref>

Until 2011, the only major professional sports team in Oregon was the Portland Trail Blazers of the National Basketball Association. From the 1970s to the 1990s, the Blazers were one of the most successful teams in the NBA in terms of both win-loss record and attendance. In the early 21st&nbsp;century, the team's popularity declined due to personnel and financial issues, but revived after the departure of controversial players and the acquisition of new players such as Brandon Roy, LaMarcus Aldridge, and Greg Oden.<ref name= samsmith>

</ref><ref name=mejia>


The Blazers play in the Rose Garden in Portland's Lloyd District, which also is home to the Portland Winterhawks of the junior-league Western Hockey League.<ref name= rosequarter>


The Timbers play at Jeld-Wen Field, which is just west of downtown Portland. The Timbers repurposed the formerly multi-use stadium into a soccer-only configuration in fall 2010, increasing the seating in the process.<ref name=pgepark>


Portland has had minor-league baseball teams in the past, including the Portland Beavers and Portland Rockies, who played most recently at PGE Park. Portland has also actively pursued a Major League Baseball team.<ref name=osc>


Eugene, Salem and Hillsboro have minor-league baseball teams. The Eugene Emeralds the Salem-Keizer Volcanoes and the Hillsboro Hops all play in the Single-A Northwest League.<ref name= nwl>"Northwest League." Minor League Baseball. Retrieved January 15, 2008.</ref> Oregon also has four teams in the fledgling International Basketball League: the Portland Chinooks, Central Oregon Hotshots, Salem Stampede, and the Eugene Chargers.<ref name= ibl>"International Basketball League." International Basketball League. Retrieved January 15, 2008.</ref>

The Oregon State Beavers and the University of Oregon Ducks football teams of the Pacific-12 Conference meet annually in the Civil War. Both schools have had recent success in other sports as well: Oregon State won back-to-back college baseball championships in 2006 and 2007,<ref>Beseda, Jim (August 12, 2010). "Oregon State baseball: Coach Pat Casey praises ex-Beaver Darwin Barney". The Oregonian (Portland, OR). Retrieved October 8, 2010.</ref> and the University of Oregon won back-to-back NCAA men's cross country championships in 2007 and 2008.<ref>


Sister states

See also


Further reading

External links


| Northeast = 
| West = Pacific Ocean
| Centre = '' Oregon'': [[Outline of Oregon|Outline]] • [[Index of Oregon-related articles|Index]]
| East = {{flag|Idaho}}
| Southwest = 
| South = {{flag|California}}  •  {{flag|Nevada}}
| Southeast = 

Oregon Pacific Northwest States of the United States States and territories established in 1859 West Coast of the United States

oregon.txt · Last modified: 2020/08/11 09:48 (external edit)